Botulinum toxin is a protein and neurotoxin produced by the bacteriumClostridium botulinum. In December 1989, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved the use of BOTOX for:
- Strabismus (certain types of eye muscle problems) or Blepharospasm (involuntary forceful closure of the eyelids). Since that time, other indications have been found including:
- Chronic Migraine– Adults with 15 or more migraine headaches a month lasting 4 or more hours each day
- Cervical Dystonia-Characterized by involuntary contractions of the neck muscles that cause twisting, repetitive movements or abnormal postures of the head. These muscle contractions can cause severe, chronic neck pain. The symptoms usually develop gradually over a period of time. These muscle contractions can cause the head to move forward (anterocollis), backward (retrocollis), sideways (laterocollis) or to twist to either side (torticollis).
- Upper limb Spasticity – a condition that affects muscles in the arms resulting in stiffness and spasm. This can be caused by stroke, Multiple Sclerosis, spinal cord injury, or brain injury.
- It is also used for treatment of overactive bladder, hyperhidrosis (excessive primary underarm sweating), and for cosmetic reasons to improve the look of wrinkles.
The effect of Botox is temporary and the treatment can be readministered approximately every three months.